Measuring Acidity of Natural Water

Natural-WaterIn the past 75 years, the worldwide human population has increased from approximately 2.5 billion to over 7 billion people. Population increase, the resulting increase in use of natural resources, and anthropogenic (human) produced waste have significantly impacted our natural environment. One of the most vital resources that humans require to live is water. Ironically enough, one of the most common anthropogenic effects on the environment is pollution of water. One indication of water pollution is a high acidity level. Water bodies all around the world consist of varying levels of acidity due to natural factors such as landscape position and slope, watershed size, geology, and soil composition, as well as anthropogenic pollution.

Moisture in Polyols


Synthetic polymers are human-made polymers, and are produced for a wide variety of applications. The structure of the polymers produced influences the properties of final product. One of the most common raw materials for polymer production is polyols. Polyols are alcohols that have more than one hydroxyl group available for organic reactions. Hydroxyl groups are a type of chemical grouping where a hydrogen atom is bonded to an oxygen atom in an organic compound. Combining raw polyols with isocyanate, a highly reactive compound, produces polymers such as polyurethanes. Polyurethanes are used in a wide range of applications, from the production of spandex fibers to insulating foam. A common use of polyurethane foam is in seating systems. These seating systems are implemented in a wide variety of applications, which include airplanes, car seats, and office chairs. Polyurethane seating is a preferred material in seating systems due to its ability to be readily formed into comfortable, ergonomic designs.

Determining the Alkalinity of Cocoa Ash


Chocolate is made from cocoa beans and, although it was originally a delicacy, is enjoyed in many forms all over the world. Cocoa was widely used in South America by the Mayans, and later was brought to Spain where its popularity grew. Over time, “chocolate houses” started opening throughout Europe, followed by the production of confections from cocoa beans. Today more than 3 million tons of cocoa beans are consumed annually, with 90% being produced on small farms. Consumption of cocoa beans varies from chocolate cake to hot chocolate, and includes a myriad of treats enjoyed around the globe.

Monitoring Acid and Iron in Steel Pickling Baths

Due to its high resistance to corrosion, stainless steel is used in a variety of industries, from cutlery and kitchenware to oil and gas. Various grades of stainless steel exist that are based on the concentrations of constituents such as chromium, nickel, and carbon. In order for a metal to be classified as “stainless steel,” there must be a minimum of 10.5% chromium by weight. When stainless steel is subjected to an oxygen-rich environment, such as air or aerated water, a chromium-rich oxide layer develops on the surface. This outer chromium oxide layer protects the product from corrosion that may occur as a result of scaling and rusting. Prior to the formation of the oxide layer, the stainless steel is subjected to several surface treatment processes to remove surface imperfections and impurities. These treatment processes include descaling, pickling and passivation. During the pickling stage, the impurities on the surface of stainless steel are removed. The steel is placed in an acid pickling bath consisting of various additives that partially dissolves the outermost layer of the steel product, exposing a fresh, pure surface. Steel pickling baths generally consist of either a single acid, such as hydrochloric acid, or a mixture of acids, such as nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid.

Determination of Organic Chlorine in Crude Oil with the HI902C Potentiometric Titration System According to ASTM D4929

Crude oil is a term for unrefined petroleum, a naturally occurring liquid found in geological formations beneath the earth’s surface. Crude oil can be refined into several valuable types of fuel including petrol, jet, and diesel fuels. Crude oil is ideal for the production of these high-energy fuels, as it contains a large quantity of hydrocarbons. The combustion of these hydrocarbons with oxygen produce the energy needed to operate boilers, engines and other machinery.

Measuring the Salt Content of Bread


The art of bread making has a rich and extensive history, with ancient roots that can be traced back at least 30,000 years. Today, the cultural and nutritional importance of bread is still significant as it continues to shape culinary identities worldwide. Generally, the process of bread making remains unchanged. Unleavened breads, such as Matzoh, are comprised of only flour and water. Upon mixing, gluten protein is formed, giving the bread structure and elasticity. After the dough is kneaded, it is baked immediately and results in a thin “ flat bread”. In comparison, leavened bread is that which rises during the baking process due to the addition of a leavening agent.

Monitoring Moisture Content in Spices


Over the past few years, with the popularity of cooking shows, there has been an increasing trend of people experimenting more with flavors and tastes. One way that people experiment in the kitchen is through the use of spices and herbs. Considering the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) identifies over 100 varieties of herbs and spices, there are many different options for flavor combinations.

Automatically Determine of Protein Content in Milk Using Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen Analysis

Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen Analysis is the standard meothd for determining protein in milk.

Find out how one dairy factory automated the titration part of the analysis to improve accuracy and save time.

Protein Content in Milk through Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen Analysis

1. Background

Proteins are macromolecules that play a crucial role in nutritional growth and development.

These large biological molecules contain at least one long chain of amino acid residues and are responsible for a multitude of biological functions, including DNA replication and repair, catalyzing metabolic reactions, and providing structure and communication in and between cells. The digestive breakdown of proteins into amino acids provides an important source of fuel and dietary nitrogen.

Milk naturally contains a number of key nutrients, including protein, which is beneficial to humans regardless of their age.

Globally, milk is a commonly consumed food product that, due to its high nutrient composition, is regarded as highly beneficial for growth.

In cow and sheep milk the percent protein can range from 3.3% to 5.8%.

Mini Automatic Titrator for Dairy

We’re pleased to announce the release of a new mini automatic titrator designed specifically for the dairy industry.

The new titrator, HI 84529, is designed specifically for testing the acidity levels and pH in dairy products.

It features a high precision piston dosing system with dynamic dosing and compact, space saving footprint.  It also feature automatic stirrer speed control, a graphic mode with exportable data and a Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) feature which allows users to view calibration data.

Hanna Instruments manufactures a variety of analytical instrumentation for the food and beverage industry, including juice meters, dairy meters, wine meters and more.
Hanna’s new mini titrator is available through any of our 40 international locations.  These offices provide Hanna customers with local service, support and training and are part of Hanna’s goal to provide an exceptional customer experience.

For more information on this and other Hanna Instruments titrators, click here.

Titration Knowledge Base Videos

We’ve uploaded some new Knowledge Base videos demonstrating the features of our automatic titration systems.  These short videos give you a quick overview on how to setup and access a titration report, transfer files to a USB drive and exchange our Clip Lock™ Burettes.

Hanna Instruments offers a full line of automatic titrators, including both potentiometric titrators (HI 902) and Karl Fischer Titrators (HI 903) for moisture analysis. These accurate, affordable titrators are the perfect way to streamline your titration process.

Here are links to our latest Knowledge Base videos:

Knowledge Base: Accessing a Titration Report on the HI 902

Knowledge Base: Setting Up a Titration Report on the HI 902

Knowledge Base: Transferring Files from the Titrator to USB Drive

Knowledge Base: How to Exchange Clip Lock™ Burettes

Check our Youtube channel regularly for updates and new videos.